A discussion with Dr. Richard Mollenkamp from the Virology Department of Erasmus MC

[ad_1]

Erasmus Medical Center (Erasmus MC) in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, has a long and proud history as a teaching hospital and research institution, with a world-renowned Department of Virology working to better understand viruses and the molecular, molecular, and pathogenic aspects of infections. Population.

Thanks to their work, serious disease threats to similar centers around the world can be quickly identified and contained. Indeed, their work includes studying and monitoring viruses ranging from those that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) to Ebola, HIV, influenza, herpes and measles.

In addition to known viruses, their work helps identify pathogens that may pose a threat to humans, which are becoming more frequent for many reasons – including globalization, land use and climate change. The ongoing covid-19 pandemic, now in its fourth year, and the recent outbreak of empox (monkey disease), a public health emergency of global concern, are just 2 recent examples that demonstrate the enormous impact that zoonotic diseases (of animal origin) can have. An interconnected world.

To better understand the work of the Virology Department, especially in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, we spoke to Dr. Richard Mollenkamp, ​​a clinical molecular virologist who works there.

How long have you worked at Erasmus MC and what is your specific role here?

I’ve been working here for 4 and a half years, and my role is focused on molecular diagnostics – in other words, analyzing signals in the genomes of viruses to diagnose and manage disease and help clinicians decide which treatments work. The best for their patients.

In addition, I play a role in the reference centers for many viruses. Erasmus MC is the World Health Organization’s Arbovirus and Hemorrhagic Fever Reference and Research Centre. Arboviruses are transmitted by mosquitoes, ticks and other arthropods. The collaborative center’s work also includes dealing with new and emerging infectious diseases such as the coronavirus. In addition, the Department of Virology is recognized as one of the reference laboratories for measles and mumps in the WHO European Region, and is the national reference center for influenza and emerging viral infections in the Netherlands.

Can you give us a brief description of the purpose and work of the Virology Department?

We do basic research and investigations, and everything in between! The purpose of all our activities is to bring benefits to human health. We are a large department of 200 or 300 people, from clinical doctors who work directly with patients to scientists and technicians at all levels who are actually doing the testing and research.

How do you go about detecting, identifying and diagnosing viruses?

Based on a specific diagnostic question, we try to identify the viral genomic material by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to transcribe, amplify and isolate the ribonucleic acid (RNA) that makes up the viral genomic code.

In addition, we can sequence the genetic information contained in the RNA strands to understand the exact sequence, which can help us identify and isolate the virus, for example to determine whether mutations in the virus may affect antiviral treatment.

Alternatively, we can determine whether a patient has been infected with the virus in the past by looking at antibodies in the patient’s serum (serology). Finally, we use viral cultures in some cases to answer some very specific diagnostic questions.

Can you tell us what role the Erasmus MC laboratories played in researching SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19?

Since the beginning of the epidemic in January 2020, in collaboration with other WHO Collaborating Centers, the PCR test developed by the Charte Laboratory in Berlin, Germany was to be approved as a standard method for diagnosing SARS-CoV. 2 worldwide.

We then started testing for SARS-CoV-2 in the third week of January 2020. Since then and basically still with the WHO and other World Health Organization collaboration centers on viruses and laboratory methods.

Initially in the Netherlands we were only testing cases with a history of travel to China or later suspected to Italy, but at the end of February we found our first case of COVID-19 here. Since then, we have started regular inspections with the RIVM (National Institute of Public Health and Environment) to confirm each other’s test results.

We were the only testing laboratory for the Rotterdam area until August 2020, when the outbreak started and many hospital laboratories became involved in testing, which required more testing capacity than we could provide.

Currently, we are mainly involved in the routine screening of newly admitted patients in our hospital, and we are working to prevent the spread of covid-19 and ensure that there is an adequate supply of human resources by regularly testing our healthcare workforce. To provide health care.

As the epidemic continues, we have seen new variants emerge. Ever wondered how the virus has changed and evolved over time?

not really. From past experience and previous research on coronaviruses and other RNA-genetically engineered viruses, I think it is not surprising that there is some variation and degree of evolution in the makeup of SARS-CoV-2. What is new in this epidemic, but compared to other epidemics, is that we can closely monitor how the virus has changed in the population, thanks to the powerful methods developed for accurate sequencing. The amount of genetic data we have for SARS-CoV-2 is unprecedented. This means we’re able to better identify new variants and track how they’re spreading right away.

Has your testing regime changed due to the number of people infected with Covid-19?

for sure. At the beginning of the epidemic, we bring our samples together with the RIVM laboratory for joint testing and verification, with manual PCR systems and combined decisions on the results. This was all very well when we only had a handful of cases, but it took more than 24 hours to get a confirmed result, and the number was increasing rapidly and the process was not sustainable.

Thanks to the development and introduction of more automated systems, we can now carry out community tests around 12 hours a day and there are laboratories working around the clock to process samples. If a very quick answer is needed – for example, if a hospital emergency room is full of patients and a negative test is needed to admit someone to the general ward, we can use rapid molecular tests that can produce results within an hour. These tests are expensive and only suitable for very small test sizes, so we only do them in particularly urgent cases.

How is your work contributing to control and stop the epidemic?

Throughout the outbreak, we have offered community testing for people with mild symptoms to control infection and ensure the virus does not spread further in the population. As vaccines are becoming available, we have conducted tests on their effectiveness, especially against new variants, and set up tests to see how well they perform.

Furthermore, we study the efficacy of antiviral compounds against emerging variants, all of which are helpful for the development of new, more targeted vaccines and antiviral therapies.

Do you think the role of laboratories in disease research, surveillance and diagnosis is appreciated by governments, health authorities and the general public? What needs to happen to better communicate what you do?

Laboratories often play a behind-the-scenes role, which can be easily taken for granted. Of course, I often see the public, policy makers and some clinicians as some kind of machine, where you press a button and the result just comes out!

In fact, it is more sophisticated than that. Laboratories can only function well by continuously developing knowledge. Without professional laboratories and the financial support needed to maintain and grow them, we would have far better understanding of diseases, the dynamics of infection, and ways to prevent and treat emerging health threats. This was particularly evident during the Covid-19 pandemic, as many of the response measures were developed with data from expert laboratories such as ours.

In general, laboratories try to – and indeed do – communicate their work in a variety of ways, including publishing results, talking to the press and informing stakeholders. However, science communication is knowledge in itself, and in my opinion, it should be integrated more into the skill set of the next generation of laboratory scientists to improve effectiveness.

[ad_2]

Source link

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

slot server luar
slot server thailand
slot server kamboja
slot server filipina
slot server jepang
slot server rusia
slot server belanda
slot server china
slot server hongkong
slot server amerika
slot server macau
slot server myanmar
slot server vietnam
slot server singapore
slot server prancis
slot server malaysia
slot server korea
slot server taiwan
slot server dubai
slot server eropaslot-server-kambojaslot-server-rusiaslot-server-jepangslot-server-malaysiaslot-server-thailandslot-server-taiwanslot-server-myanmarslot-server-vietnamslot-server-hongkongslot-server-filipinaslot-server-singaporeslot-server-amerikaslot-server-chinaslot-server-turkislot-server-ugandaslot-server-uruguayslot-server-mesirslot gacor 88slot gacor 4dslot gacor 777slot kambojaslot thailandslot hongkongslot platinumslot jepangslot rusiaslot taiwanslot malaysiaslot amerikaslot myanmarslot luar negerimahjong slotslot-server-luar-negeri
slot-server-thailand
slot-server-kamboja
slot-server-filipina
slot-server-jepang
slot-server-rusia
slot-server-belanda
slot-server-china
slot-server-hongkong
slot-server-amerika
slot-server-macau
slot-server-myanmar
slot-server-vietnam
slot-server-singapore
slot-server-prancis
slot-server-malaysia
slot-server-internasional
slot-server-sensasional
slot-server-asia
slot server luar
slot server thailand
slot server kamboja
slot server filipina
slot server jepang
slot server rusia
slot server belanda
slot server china
slot server hongkong
slot server amerika
slot server macau
slot server myanmar
slot server vietnam
slot server singapore
slot server prancis
slot server malaysia
slot server korea
slot server taiwan
slot server dubai
slot server eropaakun gacor link gacor situs gacor akun pro amerika akun pro china akun pro filipina akun pro hongkong akun pro italia akun pro jepang akun pro jerman akun pro kamboja akun pro korea akun pro lebanon akun pro london akun pro malaysia akun pro myanmar akun pro platinum akun pro prancis akun pro rusia akun pro singapore akun pro taiwan akun pro thailand akun pro vietnam slot server amerika slot server arab slot server asiaslot server belanda slot server brunei slot server china slot server dubai slot server eropa slot server filipina slot server hongkong slot server india slot server inggris slot server jepang slot server jerman slot server kamboja slot server korea slot server laos slot server lebanon slot server london slot server luar akun pro amerika akun pro australia akun pro ceko akun pro china akun pro filipina akun pro hongkong akun pro jepang akun pro kamboja akun pro korea akun pro macau akun pro malaysia akun pro monaco akun pro myanmar akun pro rusia akun pro singapore akun pro spain akun pro swiss akun pro taiwan akun pro thailand akun pro vietnam akun gacor link gacor situs gacor slot gacor 88slot gacor 4dslot gacor 777slot kambojaslot thailandslot hongkongslot platinumslot jepangslot rusiaslot taiwanslot malaysiaslot amerikaslot myanmarslot luar negerimahjong slotsv388digmaansbobetbola gacor 88slot danano limit citypragmatic slotslot pg softprincess x1000zeus 1000akun pro jepangakun pro kambojaakun pro rusiaakun pro thailandakun pro malaysiazeus 1000akun pro jepangakun pro kambojaakun pro rusiaakun pro thailandakun pro malaysiaslot server luar
slot server thailand
slot server kamboja
slot server filipina
slot server jepang
slot server rusia
slot server belanda
slot server china
slot server hongkong
slot server amerika
slot server macau
slot server myanmar
slot server vietnam
slot server singapore
slot server prancis
slot server malaysia
slot server korea
slot server taiwan
slot server dubai
slot server eropaslot gacor 88slot gacor 4dslot gacor 777slot kambojaslot thailandslot hongkongslot platinumslot myanmarslot amerikaslot jepangslot malaysiaslot server luarmahjong slotsv388digmaanslot gacor 88slot gacor 4dslot gacor 777slot kambojaslot thailandslot hongkongslot platinumslot myanmarslot amerikaslot jepangslot malaysiaslot server luarmahjong slotsv388digmaanslot gacor 88slot gacor 4dslot gacor 777slot kambojaslot thailandslot hongkongslot platinumslot myanmarslot amerikaslot jepangslot malaysiaslot server luarmahjong slotsv388digmaanslot server amerikaslot server filipinaslot server hongkongslot server jepangslot server kambojaslot server koreaslot server malaysiaslot server prancisslot server rusiaslot server thailandslot server myanmarslot server vietnamslot server asiaslot server luarakun pro amerikaakun pro filipinaakun pro hongkongakun pro jepangakun pro kambojaakun pro koreaakun pro malaysiaakun pro prancisakun pro rusiaakun pro taiwanakun pro thailandakun pro platinumakun pro singaporeakun pro vietnamslot deposit seabankslot server luar
slot server thailand
slot server kamboja
slot server filipina
slot server jepang
slot server rusia
slot server belanda
slot server china
slot server hongkong
slot server amerika
slot server macau
slot server myanmar
slot server vietnam
slot server singapore
slot server prancis
slot server malaysia
slot server korea
slot server taiwan
slot server dubai
slot server eropaslot server luar
slot server thailand
slot server kamboja
slot server filipina
slot server jepang
slot server rusia
slot server belanda
slot server china
slot server hongkong
slot server amerika
slot server macau
slot server myanmar
slot server vietnam
slot server singapore
slot server prancis
slot server malaysia
slot server korea
slot server taiwan
slot server dubai
slot server eropaserver thailand server myanmar server kamboja server jepang server filipina server hongkong server china server malaysia server taiwan server ceko server dubai server prancis server italia server swiss server inggris server amerika server vietnam server singapore server lebanon server tunisia slot server amerika slot server australia slot server china slot server dubai slot server eropa slot server filipina slot server hongkong slot server internasional slot server jepang slot server kamboja slot server korea slot server macau slot server malaysia slot server myanmar slot server rusia slot server singapore slot server spain slot server taiwan slot server thailand slot server vietnam slot amerika slot arab slot asia slot china slot dubai slot eropa slot filipina slot hongkong slot inggris slot italia slot jepang slot jerman slot kamboja slot korea slot lebanon slot london slot luar negeri slot luar slot malaysia slot myanmar slot platinum slot prancis slot rusia slot singapore slot taiwan slot thailand slot vietnam akun pro amerika akun pro australia akun pro ceko akun pro china akun pro dubai akun pro filipina akun pro hongkong akun pro jepang akun pro kamboja akun pro korea akun pro macau akun pro malaysia akun pro monaco akun pro myanmar akun pro rusia akun pro singapore akun pro swiss akun pro taiwan akun pro thailand akun pro thailand sbobetbola gacor 88slot danano limit citypragmatic slotslot pg softprincess x1000zeus 1000akun pro jepangakun pro kambojaakun pro rusiaakun pro thailandakun pro malaysiaslot server amerikaslot server filipinaslot server hongkongslot server jepangslot server kambojaslot server koreaslot server malaysiaslot server prancisslot server rusiaslot server thailandslot server myanmarslot server vietnamslot server asiaslot server luarakun pro amerikaakun pro filipinaakun pro hongkongakun pro jepangakun pro kambojaakun pro koreaakun pro malaysiaakun pro prancisakun pro rusiaakun pro taiwanakun pro thailandakun pro platinumakun pro singaporeakun pro vietnamslot-server-kambojaslot-server-rusiaslot-server-jepangslot-server-malaysiaslot-server-thailandslot-server-taiwanslot-server-myanmarslot-server-vietnamslot-server-hongkongslot-server-filipinaslot-server-singaporeslot-server-amerikaslot-server-chinaslot-server-turkislot-server-ugandaslot-server-uruguayslot-server-mesiramarta99slot gacor 88slot gacor 4dslot gacor 777slot kambojaslot thailandslot hongkongslot platinumslot myanmarslot amerikaslot jepangslot malaysiaslot server luarmahjong slotsv388digmaanslot server luar
slot server thailand
slot server kamboja
slot server filipina
slot server jepang
slot server rusia
slot server belanda
slot server china
slot server hongkong
slot server amerika
slot server macau
slot server myanmar
slot server vietnam
slot server singapore
slot server prancis
slot server malaysia
slot server korea
slot server taiwan
slot server dubai
slot server eropaslot server luar
slot server thailand
slot server kamboja
slot server filipina
slot server jepang
slot server rusia
slot server belanda
slot server china
slot server hongkong
slot server amerika
slot server macau
slot server myanmar
slot server vietnam
slot server singapore
slot server prancis
slot server malaysia
slot server korea
slot server taiwan
slot server dubai
slot server eropaakun pro amerika akun pro arab akun pro asia akun pro belanda akun pro china akun pro dubai akun pro eropa akun pro filipina akun pro hongkong akun pro inggris akun pro italia akun pro jepang akun pro jerman akun pro kamboja akun pro korea akun pro lebanon akun pro london akun pro luar negeri akun pro luar akun pro malaysia akun pro myanmar akun pro platinum akun pro prancis akun pro rusia akun pro singapore akun pro taiwan akun pro thailand akun pro tunisia slot server malaysia slot server myanmar slot server platinum slot server prancis slot server Qatar slot server rusia slot server singapore slot server sydney slot server taiwan slot server thailand slot server vietnam akun pro amerika akun pro arab akun pro asia akun pro belanda akun pro brunei akun pro china akun pro dubai akun pro eropa akun pro filipina akun pro hongkong sbobetbola gacor 88slot danano limit citypragmatic slotslot pg softprincess x1000zeus 1000akun pro jepangakun pro kambojaakun pro rusiaakun pro thailandakun pro malaysiaslot gacor 88slot gacor 4dslot gacor 777slot kambojaslot thailandslot hongkongslot platinumslot myanmarslot amerikaslot jepangslot malaysiaslot server luarmahjong slotsv388digmaanslot server luar
slot server thailand
slot server kamboja
slot server filipina
slot server jepang
slot server rusia
slot server belanda
slot server china
slot server hongkong
slot server amerika
slot server macau
slot server myanmar
slot server vietnam
slot server singapore
slot server prancis
slot server malaysia
slot server korea
slot server taiwan
slot server dubai
slot server eropaslot italia slot jepang slot jerman slot kamboja slot korea slot luar negeri slot luar slot malaysia slot myanmar slot platinum slot prancis slot rusia slot singapore slot taiwan slot thailand slot vietnam slot amerika slot arab slot asia slot china slot dubai slot eropa slot filipina slot hongkong slot inggris sbobetbola gacor 88slot danano limit citypragmatic slotslot pg softprincess x1000zeus 1000akun pro jepangakun pro kambojaakun pro rusiaakun pro thailandakun pro malaysiaslot gacor 88slot gacor 4dslot gacor 777slot kambojaslot thailandslot hongkongslot platinumslot myanmarslot amerikaslot jepangslot malaysiaslot server luarmahjong slotsv388digmaanakun pro thailand akun pro myanmar akun pro kamboja akun pro jepang akun pro filipina akun pro hongkong akun pro china akun pro malaysia akun pro taiwan akun pro ceko akun pro dubai akun pro prancis akun pro italia akun pro swiss akun pro inggris akun pro amerika akun pro vietnam akun pro singapore akun pro lebanon akun pro tunisia akun pro amerika akun pro arab akun pro asia akun pro belanda akun pro china akun pro dubai akun pro eropa akun pro filipina akun pro hongkong akun pro inggris akun pro italia akun pro jepang akun pro jerman akun pro kamboja akun pro korea akun pro lebanon akun pro london akun pro luar negeri akun pro luar akun pro malaysia akun pro myanmar akun pro platinum akun pro prancis akun pro rusia akun pro singapore akun pro taiwan akun pro thailand akun pro tunisia akun pro vietnam slot server amerika slot server arab slot server asia slot server belanda slot server brunei slot server china slot server dubai slot server eropa slot server filipina slot server hongkong slot server india slot server inggris slot server jepang slot server jerman slot server kamboja slot server korea slot server laos slot server lebanon slot server london slot server luar slot-server-kambojaslot-server-rusiaslot-server-jepangslot-server-malaysiaslot-server-thailandslot-server-taiwanslot-server-myanmarslot-server-vietnamslot-server-hongkongslot-server-filipinaslot-server-filipinaslot-server-singaporeslot-server-amerikaslot-server-chinaslot-server-chinaslot-server-turkislot-server-ugandaslot-server-uruguayslot-server-mesirslot gacor 88slot gacor 4dslot gacor 777slot kambojaslot thailandslot hongkongslot platinumslot myanmarslot amerikaslot jepangslot malaysiaslot server luarmahjong slotsv388digmaanslot server luar
slot server thailand
slot server kamboja
slot server filipina
slot server jepang
slot server rusia
slot server belanda
slot server china
slot server hongkong
slot server amerika
slot server macau
slot server myanmar
slot server vietnam
slot server singapore
slot server prancis
slot server malaysia
slot server korea
slot server taiwan
slot server dubai
slot server eropaakun pro thailand
akun pro kamboja
akun pro jepang
akun pro rusia
akun pro hongkong
akun pro myanmar
akun pro malaysia
akun pro filipina
akun pro taiwan
akun pro vietnam
akun pro china
akun pro amerika
akun pro prancis
akun pro lebanon
akun pro platinum
akun pro ceko
akun pro yaman
akun pro korea
akun pro jerman
akun pro tunisiaslot amerika slot arab slot asia slot china slot dubai slot eropa slot filipina slot hongkong slot inggris slot italia slot jepang slot jerman slot kamboja slot korea slot luar negeri slot luar slot malaysia slot myanmar slot platinum slot prancis slot rusia slot singapore slot taiwan slot thailand slot vietnam akun pro india akun pro inggris akun pro jepang akun pro jerman akun pro kamboja akun pro korea akun pro laos akun pro lebanon akun pro london akun pro luar akun pro malaysia akun pro myanmar akun pro platinum akun pro prancis akun pro qatar akun pro rusia akun pro singapore akun pro sydney akun pro taiwan akun pro thailand akun pro vietnam slot server amerika slot server arab slot server asia slot server belanda slot server brunei slot server china slot server dubai slot server eropa slot server filipina slot server hongkong slot server india slot server inggris slot server jepang slot server jerman slot server kamboja slot server korea slot server laos slot server lebanon slot server london slot server luar slot server myanmar slot server platinum slot server prancis slot server Qatar slot server rusia slot server singapore slot server sydney slot server taiwan slot server thailand slot server vietnam akun pro amerika akun pro arab akun pro asia akun pro belanda akun pro brunei akun pro china akun pro dubai akun pro eropa akun pro filipina akun pro hongkong slot server amerikaslot server filipinaslot server hongkongslot server jepangslot server kambojaslot server koreaslot server malaysiaslot server prancisslot server rusiaslot server thailandslot server myanmarslot server vietnamslot server asiaslot server luarakun pro amerikaakun pro filipinaakun pro hongkongakun pro jepangakun pro kambojaakun pro koreaakun pro malaysiaakun pro prancisakun pro rusiaakun pro taiwanakun pro thailandakun pro platinumakun pro singaporeakun pro vietnamslot gacor 88slot gacor 4dslot gacor 777slot kambojaslot thailandslot hongkongslot platinumslot myanmarslot amerikaslot jepangslot malaysiaslot server luarmahjong slotsv388digmaanserver-kamboja
server-rusia
server-jepang
server-malaysia
server-thailand
server-taiwan
server-myanmar
server-vietnam
server-filipina
server-hongkong
server-singapore
server-amerika
server-china
server-turki
server-uganda
server-uruguay
server-mesir
slot server luar
slot server thailand
slot server kamboja
slot server filipina
slot server jepang
slot server rusia
slot server belanda
slot server china
slot server hongkong
slot server amerika
slot server macau
slot server myanmar
slot server vietnam
slot server singapore
slot server prancis
slot server malaysia
slot server korea
slot server taiwan
slot server dubai
slot server eropaakun pro thailand
akun pro kamboja
akun pro jepang
akun pro rusia
akun pro hongkong
akun pro myanmar
akun pro malaysia
akun pro filipina
akun pro taiwan
akun pro vietnam
akun pro china
akun pro amerika
akun pro prancis
akun pro lebanon
akun pro platinum
akun pro ceko
akun pro yaman
akun pro korea
akun pro jerman
akun pro tunisiaslot server luar
slot server thailand
slot server kamboja
slot server filipina
slot server jepang
slot server rusia
slot server belanda
slot server china
slot server hongkong
slot server amerika
slot server macau
slot server myanmar
slot server vietnam
slot server singapore
slot server prancis
slot server malaysia
mahjong ways 2
slot gacor 4d
gates of olympus
slot gacor maxwinslot gacor 88slot gacor 4dslot gacor maxwinslot thailandslot jepangslot kambojaslot malaysiaslot myanmarslot platinumslot rusiaslot taiwanslot amerikaslot hongkongslot server luarslot server amerika slot server australia slot server china slot server dubai slot server eropa slot server filipina slot server hongkong slot server jepang slot server kamboja slot server korea slot server laos slot server macau slot server malaysia slot server myanmar slot server rusia slot server singapore slot server taiwan slot server thailand slot server vietnam slot server vipspain slot server thailand slot server myanmar slot server kamboja slot server jepang slot server filipina slot server hongkong slot server china slot server malaysia slot server taiwan slot server ceko slot server dubai slot server prancis slot server italia slot server swiss slot server inggris slot server amerika slot server vietnam slot server singapore slot server lebanon slot server tunisia akun pro amerika akun pro arab akun pro asia akun pro china akun pro dubai akun pro eropa akun pro filipina akun pro hongkong akun pro inggris akun pro italia akun pro jepang akun pro jerman akun pro kamboja akun pro korea akun pro lebanon akun pro london akun pro luar negeri akun pro malaysia akun pro myanmar akun pro platinum akun pro prancis akun pro rusia akun pro singapore akun pro sydney akun pro taiwan akun pro thailand akun pro tunisia slot server amerikaslot server filipinaslot server hongkongslot server jepangslot server kambojaslot server koreaslot server malaysiaslot server prancisslot server rusiaslot server thailandslot server myanmarslot server vietnamslot server asiaslot server luarakun pro amerikaakun pro filipinaakun pro hongkongakun pro jepangakun pro kambojaakun pro korea